Change Font Size

Category: dyspraxia

Co-occurring Difficulties

May 16 2014

Co-occurring Difficulties

Specific Learning Difficulties(SpLD's) are a family of related conditions with significant overlap and co-occurrence, with dyslexia being the most common. The specific learning difficulties include Dyspraxia, Dyscalculia and ADHD/ADD and all effect the way information is learned and processed. They are of  neurological origin, more often hereditary and all are unrelated to intelligence.

A plausible cause of co-occurrence is the proximity between brain regions that serve different cognitive functions and in particular their shared neural networks. Much research continues into developmental disorders and there are real signs that genetics, brain imaging, computational modelling and experimental cognitive techniques are coming together to improve our understanding of the causal pathways.

Dyspraxia / Developmental Co-ordination Disorder(DCD)

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia, is a common disorder affecting fine and/or gross motor coordination in children and adults. Children may present with difficulties in , for example, self-care, writing, riding a bike, throwing and catching, as well as other educational and recreational activities. In adulthood, new skills such as learning to drive or DIY tasks may be difficult to master. There may be a range of co-occurring difficulties such as problems with time management, planning and organisation.


Dyscalculia refers to the inability to understand simple number concepts and to master basic numeracy skills. There are likely to be difficulties dealing with numbers at very basic levels, such as learning number facts and procedures, telling the time, time keeping, understanding quantity, prices and money.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD)/ Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder affects an individual's ability to control attention and behaviour in an optimal and adaptive manner. The disorder often occurs together with the tendency to be overactive and impulsive. Behaviour may be erratic, unpredictable and inappropriate, often  blurting out inappropriate comments or interrupting excessively.